Jere's Techblog

Install Consul Hashicorp trough Powershell

The Consul Hashicorp DNS service is a frequently used and modern service. Enclosed you will find a Powershell Script to install the Consul-Client as a Windows-Service. The script also allows you to run a version update.

When using the script you have to adjust the variables in line 1-13. For the update only the version number has to be adjusted, which is based on

The script creates and updates the following config Files:

If you don’t need this, you can comment it out of the script yourself.

#Install/Update Consul Service
#21.09.2020   by J.Kühnis

#Consul Version  based on
$CONSUL_DIR = "$env:SystemDrive\Consul"
$consulfqdn = ""
$domainfqdn = ""

# Load DatacenterLoc from Webrequest
[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
$DatacenterLoc = (Invoke-WebRequest "" -UseBasicParsing).Content

#Windows Service params
$params = @{
  Name = "Consul"
  BinaryPathName = "$CONSUL_DIR\Consul.exe agent -config-dir=$CONSUL_DIR\config -data-dir=$CONSUL_DIR\data"
  DisplayName = "Consul"
  StartupType = "Automatic"
  Description = "Consul Hashicorp DNS Service."
#stop consul service, if exists
IF(get-service -Name $params.Name -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue){
    Stop-Service -Name $params.Name -Force
    do {
        Start-sleep 1
    until((Get-Service -Name $ -eq 'Stopped')
    start-sleep 1

#Create Consul Folder
IF(!(Test-Path $CONSUL_DIR)){
    New-Item -ItemType Directory $CONSUL_DIR
Set-Location "$CONSUL_DIR"
#Create Subdir
$arraySubDir = @(

$arraySubDir | %{
    IF(!(Test-Path "$CONSUL_DIR\$_")){
        New-Item -ItemType Directory "$CONSUL_DIR\$_"

<# Set Download Proxy, if needed
$WebClient = New-Object System.Net.WebClient
$WebProxy = New-Object System.Net.WebProxy("http://your.proxy.url",$false)
$WebProxy.Credentials = $Credentials
$WebClient.Proxy = $WebProxy
$WebClient.DownloadFile( "${CONSUL_URL}/${CONSUL_VERSION}/consul_${CONSUL_VERSION}_SHA256SUMS.sig","$CONSUL_DIR\consul_${CONSUL_VERSION}_SHA256SUMS.sig")
get-content "${CONSUL_DIR}/*SHA256SUMS"| select-string  (get-filehash -algorithm SHA256 "${CONSUL_DIR}/consul_${CONSUL_VERSION}").hash.toLower()

#Unzip Download
Expand-Archive "${CONSUL_DIR}/consul_${CONSUL_VERSION}" "$CONSUL_DIR" -Force

#Add env var
$env:path += ";${CONSUL_DIR}"
[Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("Path", [Environment]::GetEnvironmentVariable("Path", "Machine") + ";${CONSUL_DIR}", "Machine")

#Create/Update ConfigFiles

### Create HCL Config File; consul.hcl ###
$hcl_config = "${CONSUL_DIR}\config\consul.hcl"
IF(Test-Path $hcl_config){
    Remove-Item $hcl_config -Force
New-Item $hcl_config

$hcl_filecontent = @(
'datacenter = ' + '"' + $DatacenterLoc + '"'
'retry_join = ["' + $consulfqdn + '"]'
    'domain = "' + $domainfqdn + '"'
'acl = {enabled = true, default_policy = "deny", enable_token_persistence = true }'
Add-Content -Path $hcl_config $hcl_filecontent

### Create node_exporter.json config file ###
$json_config = "${CONSUL_DIR}\config\node_exporter.json"
IF(Test-Path $json_config){
    Remove-Item $json_config -Force
New-Item $json_config

$body = [pscustomobject]@{
    services= @([ordered]@{
        name = "node-exporter"
        tags = @("monitor")
        port = 9100
Set-Content $json_config ($body | ConvertTo-Json -Depth 3)

#register Consul as a WindowsService
IF(!(get-service -Name $params.Name -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue)){
    New-Service @params
Start-Service -Name $params.Name
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Get size of Citrix UPM Profile

With these few lines you get an evaluation of your profile sizes and the AppData, if you have redirectet this to a share.
The script is designed to check multiple shares. You only have to adjust the array “$ProfileFolders” and if necessary the variable “$folder1, $folder2”

#by J.Kühnis 18.12.2019
$ProfileFolders = @(

$infos = @()

Foreach ($folder in $ProfileFolders){
Write-Host $folder

Get-ChildItem $folder | ? { $_.Name -notmatch ".V2" } | % {
    Write-Host ($folder + "\" + $_.Name + "\ts\v3\prd\AppData")
    $folder1 = $folder + "\" + $_.Name + "\ts\v3\prd\AppData"
    $folder2 = $folder + "\" + $_.Name + "\ts\v3\prd\upm\UPM_Profile"
    IF (Test-Path $folder2) {
        $a = ((gci -Recurse $folder1 -Force | measure Length -s).sum / 1Gb)
        $b = ((gci -Recurse $folder2 -Force | measure Length -s).sum / 1Gb)
        $c = "{0:N3} GB" -f ($a + $b)
        $output = $_.Name + "," +  $c + "," + $folder
        Write-Host $output
        $infos += $output
        Clear-Variable a,b,c,output
    Clear-Variable folder1, folder2

$infos | ogv
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Compare ActiveDirectory ACL

Here are some examples and a good description of the ActiveDirectory ACL:

Script example to compare ActiveDirectory OU ACL ( Security Groups )

by J.Kühnis 25.11.2019

Import-Module ActiveDirectory

$OU1 = Get-ACl -Path 'AD:\OU=Sales,OU=UserAccounts,DC=FABRIKAM,DC=COM' |  Select-Object -ExpandProperty Access | select IdentityReference

$OU2 = Get-ACl -Path 'AD:\OU=Marketing,OU=UserAccounts,DC=FABRIKAM,DC=COM' |  Select-Object -ExpandProperty Access | select IdentityReference

Compare-Object $OU1 $OU2 -IncludeEqual
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Function Count Ad-GroupMember

#by J.Kühnis 12.11.2019
Function Count-ADGroupMember {
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]

    #Get Data From AD-Group
    $groupdsn = (Get-ADGroup $groupname).DistinguishedName
    $group = [adsi]"LDAP://$groupdsn" 
    $groupmemebrs = $group.psbase.invoke("Members") | ForEach-Object { $_.GetType().InvokeMember("SamAccountName", 'GetProperty', $null, $_, $null) }
    $ADGroupMemberCount = $groupmemebrs.count
    return $ADGroupMemberCount


Count-ADGroupMember -GroupName AnyGroupNameHere
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PowerCLI: Create VM Engine

Here is an example of how to make automated VM’s with PowerCLI. You can customize the vLAN, DiskType, etc.

If you reuse the Script below, I would recommend to look at the parameters and adapt them to your environment, e.g. network/storage config like the vLan,ESXI Hosts or the adapter type you are using its VMWare.


Create-CustomVirtualMachine -Hostname 'MyServer' -NumCPU 6 -DiskSize 80 -RAMinGB 12 -OS Srv2016

Ensure you are using this script with PowerCLI or with the PowerCLI Module / Assemblys.

The script can also be saved and imported as a module (.psm1).

Import-Module "Path:\to\your\module\share\Create-VM_onFreeDatastore.psm1" -Verbose

Script to create VMs on Hypervisor with enough free ressources

#by J.Kühnis 06.11.2019
    $VmHostArray = @()

    Class VMHost {

Function Get-VMHostVirtualMachineVMs {
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)][String] $VMhost,
    IF ($ExtendedProperties -eq $true) {
        IF ($global:VMhostsVM = (Get-VMHost -Name $VMhost | Get-VM | select MemoryGB, VMHost, Name)) {
            return $global:VMhostsVM
    Else {
        IF ($global:VMhostsVM = ((Get-VMHost -Name $VMhost | Get-VM).Name | sort)) {
            return $global:VMhostsVM
    return $false
Function Get-vmHostDataStore {
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
    $global:DatastoreID = (get-datastore -Id $DatastoreIDList)           
    return  $global:DatastoreID
Function Create-VMEngine {
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]

    write-host "Hypervisor Parameters:" $VMName $EsxiHost $Datastore $MemoryGB $Vlan
    write-host (get-date -f HH:mm:ss)"Start VM Creation $VmName, please wait..."
    If (Get-VM *$VMName*) {
        Write-Host "VM $VMName already exists!!!, Skip this Hostname." -ForegroundColor RED -BackgroundColor Black

    IF ($OS -eq 'Win10') {
        New-VM -Name $VmName -ResourcePool $EsxiHost -Datastore $Datastore -NumCPU $NumCPUCore -MemoryGB $MemoryGB -NetworkName $Vlan -GuestID windows9_64Guest -DiskGB $DiskSize -DiskStorageFormat $HDFormat
    Else {
        New-VM -Name $VmName -ResourcePool $EsxiHost -Datastore $Datastore -NumCPU $NumCPUCore -MemoryGB $MemoryGB -NetworkName $Vlan -GuestID windows9Server64Guest -DiskGB $DiskSize -DiskStorageFormat $HDFormat

    # Set SCSI Controller
    Get-ScsiController -VM $VmName | Set-ScsiController -Type VirtualLsiLogicSAS >$NULL -WarningAction SilentlyContinue
    Write-host "Configure VM $VMName"
    # Configure vCPU & Core
    $VmName = Get-VM -name $VmName
    set-vm -vm $VmName -numcpu $TotalCpu -Confirm:$false >$NULL

    # Configure MAC-Address and Adapter Type
    $vm = Get-VM -Name $vmName
    $nic = Get-NetworkAdapter -VM $vm
    $global:spec = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualMachineConfigSpec
    $devSpec = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualDeviceConfigSpec
    $devSpec.Device = $nic.ExtensionData
    $devSpec.operation = "edit"
    $spec.DeviceChange += $devSpec
    Set-NetworkAdapter -NetworkAdapter $nic -Type Vmxnet3 -Confirm:$false >$NULL

    $spec = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualMachineConfigSpec
    $spec.Firmware = [VMware.Vim.GuestOsDescriptorFirmwareType]::bios
    try {
    catch {

    #special Parameters
    New-AdvancedSetting -Entity $vm -Name ethernet0.pciSlotNumber -Value 192 -Confirm:$false -Force:$true >$NULL -WarningAction SilentlyContinue
    Write-host "VM Config finished"
    write-host (get-date -f HH:mm:ss)"VM Creation $VmName finished!" -ForegroundColor "Green"


Function Create-CustomVirtualMachine {
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)][string]$Hostname,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)][ValidateRange(1, 16)][int]$NumCPU,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)][ValidateRange(1, 250)][int]$DiskSize,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)][ValidateRange(1, 32)][int]$RAMinGB,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)][ValidateSet('Win10', 'Srv2016')][string]$OS

    Write-host "------------------------"`n"| Start VmWare Section |"`n"------------------------"  -ForegroundColor WHITE
    (get-vmhost HYPERVISORFQDN1.f.q.d.n, HYPERVISORFQDN2.f.q.d.n | select Name, State, Parent, DatastoreIdList, MemoryTotalGB, MemoryUsageGB) | % {
        #$FreetoUseMemory = ("{0:N0}" -f $_.MemoryTotalGB) - ("{0:N0}" -f $_.MemoryUsageGB)
        $myhost = New-Object VMhost -Property @{Name = $_.Name; State = $_.State; Parent = $_.Parent; DatastoreIdList = $_.DatastoreIdList; MemoryTotalGB = $_.MemoryTotalGB; MemoryUsageGB = $_.MemoryUsageGB; }
        $VmHostArray += $myhost
    Foreach ($VmWareHost in $VmHostArray) {
        $VmWareHost.ReservedVMmemory = ((Get-VMHostVirtualMachineVMs $VmWareHost.Name -ExtendedProperties $true).MemoryGB | Measure-Object -sum).sum
        $VmWareHost.FreetoUseMemory = ("{0:N0}" -f $VmWareHost.MemoryTotalGB) - ("{0:N0}" -f $VmWareHost.ReservedVMmemory);

    $VmHostArray = $VmHostArray | Sort-Object -Property FreetoUseMemory -Descending

    #Check RAM Space on ESXI Host with 10GB reserves on Host
    IF (($VmHostArray[0].FreetoUseMemory - 10) -ge ($RAM)) {
        #Check if Disk has 10GB Free Storage
        IF (get-vmHostDataStore -DatastoreIDList $VmHostArray[0].DatastoreIdList) {
            $specVMDatastore = (get-vmHostDataStore -DatastoreIDList $VmHostArray[0].DatastoreIdList | Sort-Object -Property FreeSpaceGB -Descending)
            [int]$a = ("{0:N0}" -f $specVMDatastore[0].FreeSpaceGB).Replace("'", "")
            IF ($a -ge ($DiskSize + 10) ) {
                $specVMDatastore = $specVMDatastore[0].Name
                $VMName = $Hostname
                $EsxiHost = $VmHostArray[0].Name
                $Datastore = $specVMDatastore
                [int]$NumCPUCore = 1
                $Vlan = 'Some_VlanName'
                $HDFormat = "Thin"
                [int]$TotalCPU = $NumCPU

                # Create VM on Host
                Create-VMEngine -VMName $VMName -EsxiHost $EsxiHost -Datastore $Datastore -MemoryGB $RAMinGB -Vlan $Vlan -NumCPUCore $NumCPUCore -HDFormat $HDFormat -TotalCPU $TotalCPU -DiskSize $DiskSize -OS $OS
                Write-host "----------------------"`n"| End VmWare Section |"`n"----------------------"  -ForegroundColor WHITE
            Else {
                Write-host $Hostname "| not enough storage on ESXI Host! Action stopped." -ForegroundColor Yellow -BackgroundColor Black
        Else {
            Write-host $Hostname "| No Datastore found. Action stopped" -ForegroundColor Yellow -BackgroundColor Black
    Else {
        Write-Host $Hostname "| not enough on ESXI Host. Action stopped" -ForegroundColor Yellow -BackgroundColor Black

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Jobs on PowerShell

Certain processes can take a long time. As an example, if you want to search a specific event log trough several servers.
To counteract this, Powershell has introduced “Jobs, Workflows and Foreach-Parallel”. It should be well estimated what you can use where best. Personally, I like to rely on jobs when it comes to remote querying / remote invocation.

There is a sensational blogpost by Harry Eagles bout the topic:

I would like to show a small example of how I use Jobs to read out Eventlogs about several machines. In the example, it is only checked if the corresponding log exists or was written in the last 45 minutes. For 128 servers I needed 30 minutes with this parallel Task. I killed the sequential script after 6 hours …

#by J.Kühnis
$Servers = @(

Remove-Job *
$outputArray = @()

Foreach ($Server in $Servers){

Start-Job -Name $Server -ArgumentList $Server{
    IF(Get-EventLog -LogName System -InstanceId '12306' -After (Get-Date).AddMinutes(-45) -ComputerName $servername -ErrorAction Ignore){
    Write-Output"$servername  true"
    Write-Output "$servername  false"


While (Get-Job -State "Running") {
    write-host "Jobs Running"  (Get-Job).count
    Start-Sleep 2
write-host "Jobs completed, getting output"

Get-Job | ForEach-Object {
    $a = Receive-Job $_.Id
    $outputArray += $a

#Use the variable $outputArray to get or export the Outputdata
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XenApp:7.x: The users configuration has been manually modified and cannot be changed by studio

Symptoms or Error

We are unable to edit the ‘Users’ tab in ‘Edit Delivery Group’ wizard 

Error : The users configuration has been manually modified and cannot be changed by studio

Solution: There are two causes for this problem, but the official Citrix website describes only one of them and offers only one solution for it.

Problem Cause 1 Solution by Citrix

You can just Use the Scriptblock below to Check if there are Differences between the ” *DesktopGroupName* _Direct” (Storefront) and the “*DesktopGroupName*_AG” (Netscaler).

You only have to adjust the first two variables (lines 3 & 4), it’s easier than the description of Citrix article. If there are differences, you can clean them up, unless these differences are deliberately set that way. Then you have to configure this via Powershell and you can’t customize it in the Studio console.

#by J.Kühnis 30.10.2019
Add-PSSnapin *
$DeliveryGroup = "DeliveryGroupName"
$BrokerServer = "BrokerName.f.q.d.n"
Compare-Object (Get-BrokerAccessPolicyRule -AdminAddress $BrokerServer -DesktopGroupName $DeliveryGroup)[0].ExcludedUsers -DifferenceObject (Get-BrokerAccessPolicyRule -AdminAddress $BrokerServer -DesktopGroupName $DeliveryGroup)[1].ExcludedUsers

Problem Cause 2

The second reason for this Issue has no solution except to configure the access only with Powershell, but it’s still nice to know why the Probleme is caused.

I was able to test the problem in two Citrix environments (version 1811 aka Citrix 7.20) and reported it to Citrix. Let’s see if anything is done about it, as already said, the workaround is Powershell.

Cause: The problem occurs when the ExcludeFilterEnabled attribute is set (the value equals ‘True’). The attribute can only be set trough Powershell and the error described above (according to the print screen) is displayed.

The filter is automatically set to True if you have a user or group in the ‘ExcludedUsers’ property. So the rule is, if you make exclude Filter, you control the BrokerAccessPolicy in Powershell.
By the way, you can get the Policy in Powershell:

Get-BrokerAccessPolicyRule -DesktopGroupName DG11
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